Course: Textbook Development Part-II (6553)

Semester: Spring, 2021


Q1: what are qualities of good trainers at school level? How school trainings can be made more beneficial for teacher? Give your

Employee orientation is the entire process by which new employees are introduced to their jobs, their responsibilities, their colleagues and the workplace in general. This comprehensive process gives new employees the chance to feel more comfortable in their new roles in the company, as well as the departments and teams to which they'll be assigned. Your employee orientation will be effective if you answer questions from your new recruits as well as deal with their concerns. Effective employee orientation also makes your employees aware of all the policies of the company as well as what is expected of them as employees. It also helps them get comfortable with their new roles in the company.

Orientation is important for new employees. Employee orientation basically begins a fresh relationship between the employer and employees. The employees get acquainted with colleagues as well as managers. An orientation that does its job of communicating to the employees what their responsibilities are and what the company expects of them will enable them to be more productive quickly. Good employee orientations can even reduce employee turnover, because there are fewer misunderstandings about expectations. When your company has a clear policy for the process of employee orientation, all of your new recruits will undergo the exact same training and receive the same information across the years.

Training and development help improve how the employees perform within the company. It’s also about how the company seeks to increase the self-fulfillment of its employees. This is done through a variety of education programs and methods.

There are plenty of new techniques coming up every day that companies can use to implement the training and development of employees. However, some have survived through the decades and proven to be very effective. Any good training and development program will integrate several of these features in any combination. When blended together, these techniques make for an effective training program.

Company Orientations

This is the most common kind of training method and helps ensure that new employees are successful in your company. Whether you carry out the training through some kind of handbook, a one-on-one meeting, or a lecture, the information you convey to the employees should contain the company’s strategic and historic positions. The main people in authority in the company should also be mentioned, along with the structure of the company, as well as the specific departments. Employees should also be educated on exactly how their departments contribute to company objectives and help it accomplish its mission. The employee should also be educated about the rules and regulations of the company as well as its employment policies.

Training Lectures

Lectures are very useful when you need to get the same information to a large number of people at the same time. You don’t have to carry out individual meetings with the employees, so that makes the lecture very cost

effective. There are, however, some disadvantages to the lecture as a method of training employees. Since a lecture only works one way, with one person addressing the crowd, it may not be very interesting, making it less effective for training. It really depends on the oratory skills of the person delivering the lecture. If you're not good at grabbing and holding the attention of people for extended periods of time, then the attention of the crowd will soon shift. Another drawback is that the lecturer won’t have an easy way of figuring out if the attendees have understood the message.

Case Studies

This method of training is nondirected. Basically, employees are given some practical reports of cases to analyze to learn the main points they need as part of their training. The case report will consist of an exhaustive description of some real-life situation employees may encounter. They should then analyze the problems presented as part of the case study and figure out possible solutions to them. They are typically encouraged to be independent in their thinking and even think outside of the box when possible. The employees should not rely on the direction of the instructor to perform their analysis of the case study. The main advantage that comes with the case study is that real-life stories are used. There is no better source of problems to analyze and come up with solutions. The employees gain practical experience in dealing with on-the-job problems. They don’t have to deal with abstract theories that they might have a hard time practically applying to the job.

Role Playing

This training method asks people to take on various roles and play out those roles in a team. The facilitator of the training session will come up with a scenario that is to be acted out by the employees. The scenario is usually deeply rooted in practicality, and the interpersonal relations that are simulated are quite genuine. The participants receive feedback immediately – from both the facilitator of the training session and the scenario they are carrying out itself. They will, therefore, have a much better understanding of their own behavior as well as that of others. This method is quite cost effective and is often employed in management training and marketing training.


The main difference between simulation training and role-playing is that role-playing is a subset of the simulation method. Basically, simulations are structured games and competitions that model the real world and seek to emulate scenarios that could plausibly occur in real life. The benefit of such methods is improvement of various employee skills, including problem-solving, understanding, decision making and the ability to perceive and respond to actual problems. They are also exciting enough to both capture and hold people's interest.

Computer-Based Training

Computer-based training programs are focused on developing a structure for the learning process. Instructional materials are provided, via computer, to the new hires, and they can complete it by themselves while bosses or trainers facilitate the process. The main benefit of this kind of program is that employees have the luxury to

learn at their own pace and can learn at the times most convenient to them. The primary use of this method is in learning about operational equipment, computer hardware and computer software. Computer-based training is particularly important when it comes to learning about operational equipment, because the employee gets a simulated experience of operating the equipment without having to risk either damage to the equipment or injury. The operational equipment also doesn’t have to face any downtime because it's simulated.

A particularly popular kind of computer-based training is web-based training, wherein people complete their training online, where there are additional resources; the company doesn’t have to develop its own training materials but can use relevant materials that are already available online. Since more and more organizations have high-speed internet available, web-based training is becoming a lot more common.

Audiovisual Training Methods

These training methods include videotapes, film and television. They are similar to simulations and role-playing games in the sense that they also give employees access to real-world scenarios and are cost effective. The main disadvantage of this kind of training is that it’s very hard to customize this kind of training for a given audience. Also, the audience doesn’t get to participate in the training by asking questions during the presentation.

Team Building

This kind of training method involves the creation of effective teams with the same goals as the business or particular department within the company. It’s not quite the same as the kind of ad hoc and informal use of teams in the workplace. Team building is a well structured and formal process and is usually facilitated by some third party, typically a consultant. It is usually done to solve the issue of poor dynamics within groups and teams, manage relations between employees and management, and also to improve productivity and quality of work.

Training is an important part of preparing new employees for their roles and positions within the company and also helping existing employees stay current on the latest information about the company. For a training program to be effective, it needs to have a purpose and then implement the right training methods. By understanding the factors affecting training and development effectiveness, you can either change your current training programs or develop them to meet the needs of your employees and your business. Here are some factors influencing the effectiveness of training programs:

The Purpose of the Program

Of all the factors that affect work, the purpose is the greatest factor that will influence how the training program will be planned and executed. For you to be able to develop the right kind of training program, you’ ll have to understand exactly what kind of knowledge and skills you want to impart to your employees. The training scope will also determine whether it will be possible to hold the training internally or you’ll have to contract a third - party consultant or institution to hold the training on your behalf.

The Resources Available to Your Company

The resources you have at your behest will determine the exact type and extent of your training program. Your budget, for example, will determine the type of training you’ll be able to afford. You might not be able to send all of your employees to a local college for training, but you might be able to call a few professors over for a series of training workshops. The space you have available in your workplace will also affect what is possible. You need a large enough space to train your employees. If you have limited space, you might have to do it in smaller groups. You will also need training materials to make your training program strong.

The Audience of the Training Program

The kind of audience that attends your training sessions also affects how you develop the program. Some courses are made for all of your staff, while others are suitable only for a small section of it. You, therefore, need to have an understanding of the kind of background knowledge you need to develop a training session that is appropriate to the specific audience you’re dealing with. You should know about any prior knowledge the participants of the training session have and build from there.

The Training Staff Involved

The staff members in charge of the training program are also important to the effectiveness of the training program. Trainers who are educated and experienced in teaching professionals will conduct far better training sessions that those without that experience. You also want your trainers to understand the goals and values of the company and have enthusiasm for training your employees.

what are the main purposes of lesson planning? Also give some guidelines for preparing lesson plan for biology textbooks.

"Teaching materials" is a generic term used to describe the resources teachers use to deliver instruction. Teaching materials can support student learning and increase student success. Ideally, the teaching materials will be tailored to the content in which they're being used, to the students in whose class they are being used, and the teacher. Teaching materials come in many shapes and sizes, but they all have in common the ability to support student learning. Teaching materials can refer to a number of teacher resources; however, the term usually refers to concrete examples, such as worksheets or manipulatives (learning tools or games that students can handle to help them gain and practice facility with new knowledge -- e.g. counting blocks). Teaching materials are different from teaching "resources," the latter including more theoretical and intangible elements, such as essays or support from other educators, or places to find teaching materials.

Student Learning Support

Learning materials are important because they can significantly increase student achievement by supporting student learning. For example, a worksheet may provide a student with important opportunities to practice a new skill gained in class. This process aids in the learning process by allowing the student to explore the knowledge independently as well as providing repetition. Learning materials, regardless of what kind, all have some function in student learning.

Lesson Structure

Learning materials can also add important structure to lesson planning and the delivery of instruction. Particularly in lower grades, learning materials act as a guide for both the teacher and student. They can provide a valuable routine. For instance, if you are a language arts teacher and you teach new vocabulary words every Tuesday, knowing that you have a vocabulary game to provide the students with practice regarding the new words will both take pressure off of you and provide important practice (and fun) for your students.

Differentiation of Instruction

In addition to supporting learning more generally, learning materials can assist teachers in an important professional duty: the differentiation of instruction. Differentiation of instruction is the tailoring of lessons and instruction to the different learning styles and capacities within your classroom. Learning materials such as worksheets, group activity instructions, games, or homework assignments all allow you to modify assignments to best activate each individual student's learning style.

Acquiring Teaching Materials\

Getting your hands on valuable teaching materials is not nearly as difficult as it can seem at first. The Internet has many resources for teachers, most of them free, that can significantly increase the contents of your teaching toolbox. You can also make your own materials. Every learning material you develop will be an asset to you when you next teach a similar unit. An investment of time or money in good teaching materials is an investment in good teaching.

Learning Resources Materials are materials that are used for teaching a course.

Below are definitions of the Material Types that can be selected during the upload process for both the “Primary Material Type” field and the “Secondary/Other Material Type” field.

  1. Animation: Successive drawings that create an illusion of movement when shown in sequence. The animations visually and dynamically presents concepts, models, processes, and/or phenomena in space or time. Users can control their pace and movement through the material typically, but they cannot determine and/or influence the initial conditions or their outcomes/results. Animations typically do not contain real people, places or things in .
  2. Assessment Tool: Forms, templates, and technologies for measuring
  3. Assignment: Activities or lesson plans designed to enable students to learn skills and
  4. Case Study: A narrative resource describing a complex interaction of real life factors to help illustrate the impact and/or interactions of concepts and factors in
  5. Collection: A meaningful organization of learning resources such as web sites, documents, apps, that provides users an easier way to discover the materials..
  6. Development Tool: Software development applications platforms for authoring technology-based resources (e.g. web sites, learning objects, ).
  1. Drill and Practice: Requires users to respond repeatedly to questions or stimuli presented in a variety of sequences. Users practice on their own, at their own pace, to develop their ability to reliably perform and demonstrate the target knowledge and
  2. ePortfolio: A collection of electronic materials assembled and managed by a user. These may include text, electronic files, images, multimedia, blog entries, and links. E-portfolios are both demonstrations of the user’s abilities and platforms for self-expression, and, if they are online, they can be maintained dynamically over time. An e-portfolio can be seen as a type of learning record that provides actual evidence of
  3. Hybrid/Blended Course: The organization and presentation of course curriculum required to deliver a complete course that blends online and face-to-face teaching and learning
  4. Illustration/Graphic: Visual concepts, models, and/or processes (that are not photographic images) that visually present concepts, models, and/or processes that enable students to learn skills or knowledge. These can be diagrams, illustrations, graphics or infographics in any file format including Photoshop, Illustrator and other similar file
  5. Learning Object Repository: A searchable database of at least 100 online resources that is available on the Internet and whose search result displays an ordered hit list of items with a minimum of title A webpage with a list of links is not a learning object repository.
  6. Online Course: The organization and presentation of course curriculum required to deliver a complete course fully
  7. Online Course Module: A component or section of a course curriculum that can be presented fully online and independent from the complete
  8. Open Journal – Article: A journal or article in a journal that is free of cost from the end user and has a Creative Commons, public domain, or other acceptable use license
  9. Open Textbook: An online textbook offered by its author(s) with Creative Commons, public domain, or other acceptable use license agreement allowing use of the ebook at no additional
  10. Photographic Image – Instructional: Photos or images of real people, places or things that visually presents concepts, processes and/or phenomena that enable students to learn skills or knowledge. These can be photographs, images, or stock
  11. Presentation: Teaching materials (text and multimedia) that are used to present curriculum and concepts to
  12. Quiz/Test: Any assessment device intended to evaluate the knowledge and/or skills of
  13. Reference Material: Material with no specific instructional objectives and similar to that found in the reference area of a library. Subject specific directories to other sites, texts, or general information are examples.
  1. Simulation: Approximates a real or imaginary experience where users’ actions affect the outcomes of tasks they have to complete. Users determine and input initial conditions that generate output that is different from and changed by the initial conditions.
  2. Social Networking Tool: Websites and apps that allows users to communicate with others connected in a network of self-identified user groups for the purpose of sharing information, calls for actions, and reactions.
  3. Syllabus: A document or website that outlines the requirements and expectations for completing a course of study. Course Outlines would also be included in this.
  4. Tutorial: Users navigate through a set of scaffolded learning activities designed to meet stated learning objectives, structured to impart specific concepts or skills, and organized sequentially to integrate conceptual presentation, demonstration, practice and testing. Feedback on learner performance is an essential component of a
  5. Video – Instructional: A recording of moving visual images that show real people, places and things that enable students to learn skills or
  6. Workshop and Training Material: Materials best used in a workshop setting for the purpose of professional

Discuss the computer aids for writing text. Also highlight its components for writing task.

A writing tool is software that helps people to write. Such tools are very popular in school teaching. One of the reasons may be that they empower teachers, i.e. allows them to orchestrate scenarios of their own design that engage learners with the computer, as opposed to learning through the computer.

In education, they can be considered as a kind of cognitive tool. See also: professionnal software since some writing tools have been made for and are used by real writers.

There are many kinds of tools.

  • Any kind of word processor, e..g Microsoft Word (or a better tool like Adobe Framemaker).
  • On-line word processors like Google Docs or Zoho Writer
  • Paper of various sorts
  • Structured word processors, e.g. XML editors<
  • Outlining tools
  • Concept organisation, see: Concept maps
  • On-line collaborative writing tools (such as Wikis or CMS or through-the-web editing/storing/sharing à la Zoho/Google apps)
  • Various paper tools and that very popular in classroom teaching (e.g. [1]
  • Any sort of authoring environment, in particular ones that are good for digital storytelling.

Such tools can either be for individual use, for group use (e.g. integrated in a groupware application) or based on social computing, e.g. several social software includes note taking tools.

Technological writing tools

Computer supported writing tools provide rich possibilities to enhance written communication.

A review by Ulusoy (2006) outlines some specific effects computer-supported writing environments can have on the writing process.

  • pre-writing and planning processes through the use of outlines , concept maps, CSCL, computer-supported collaborative writing<
  • provide prompts and context-specific help throughout the writing process
  • text production may be enhanced by the ability to engage in non-linear note-taking and freeflow text production
  • simplification of the revision process through word-processing functions (spell checking, dictionaries, text editing), and

Haas (1998) found that those writing with a computerized workstation wrote longer, spent less time planning, generated more text, but at a similar rate as writers using pen and paper. They also spent more time revising and attending to the medium than writers using pen and paper

Planning tools

It is believed that experienced writers are better able to effectively engage in planning their texts and this difference leads to better texts (Bereiter and Scardamalia 1987, Flower & Hayes 1980, Haas 1989), though some studies fail to show a connection between the planning methods and the quality of the text produced (Haas 1989, Isnard & Piolat 1993).

Haas used homogeneously experienced writers whose goal was to produce a quality persuasive text, not to learn about argumentation or about a a particular topic. Paper and pen may particularly favour experienced writers who are topic experts and do not need to search for ideas or engage in any nowledge constituting processes as they can move straight to planning with no need to develop ideas further through the text-generating part of the writing process. The order in which planning, text generation, structuring and revision processes occur during the writing process may vary for writers with different experience and learning styles (see Writing-to-learn. More planning may lead to better texts but not necessarily more learning, assumingif the purpose of the argumentation is to learn rather than simply a writing exercise of skills already developed. If trying to teach argumentation skills through writing then the idea generating activity of freeflow text encouraged by computer-supported argumentation tools is important. Planning can be done at any stage in the writing, catering to many learning styles.

The tool used in planning and writing can, however, influence the occurrence of the different writing processes. Isnard & Piolat (1993) found that types of planning can influence the number of ideas generated and the overal structural quality of a written text. Outlining during idea-organization phases resulted in more new ideas being generated than when ideas were organized using a freeflow form or a graphic organizational mode (e.g.: chart, graph, concept map).

what are technical aspects of editing a textbook? How these aspects are helpful in editing textbook of science at secondary level?

Technical editing today covers far more than printed materials. Technical editors may be required to deal with:

  • Printed materials (for example, books, pamphlets, quick reference cards, reports)
  • Electronic materials (for example, online documentation, online help, web pages)
  • Video scripts
  • Computer-based training materials

In most cases, the audience for the material being edited is not composed of other technical people, and the editor is not the person responsible for ensuring the technical accuracy of the material.

In some cases, the technical editor is responsible for some technical accuracy. For example, when editing a user’s guide for a computer software program, the editor typically tests the written procedures using the software.

Technical editors work in a variety of fields, including:

  • Computer software and hardware
  • Engineering
  • Medicine
  • Sciences
  • Legal, banking and brokerage services
  • Website development for any business or activity This section of the website includes the following Technical writing and technical editing

Working with a technical editor

What writers and editors can do to get the best results out of working together.

Who needs a technical editor?

The value and role of editors on a technical writing project.

Who needs a technical writer?

Why successful businesses need to use a professional writer’s services.

Choosing and using a technical writer

How to find and evaluate writers and make the best use of their expertise.

Ethics in scientific and technical communication

Summarises some general categories of ethical issues faced by technical editors.

What do technical editors do? Escape from the grammar trap

A revised version of this article. Distinguish between essential and nonessential rules of grammar, punctuation, and usage.

Technical editors’ responsibilities

Job advertisements for technical editors in the computer software industry show some of the types of work, and the skills and knowledge required by editors.

The role of the editor in the technical writing team

What editors do; types of edit; interactions with the writing team.

The editor-writer relationship

Strategies for improving the editor’s relationship with writers.

Classifying editorial tasks

Rule-based and analysis-based editing.

What is substantive editing?

How substantive (developmental, comprehensive) editing differs from copyediting.

How long does editing take?

Guidelines for accurate estimation.

Different ways of working

How to organise the flow of writing, editing and reviewing tasks.

Do editors focus on the wrong things?

Too many editors focus on details instead of the bigger picture.


Time zones can be your friend

Advantages of working with people in a distant location.

Marketing your remote editorial services

Things to discuss with a prospective client at a distant location.

Finding telecommuting editorial work

Tips for finding work through networking and creative marketing.

Technical writers always want their work to be recognized by the audience. Technical writing and editing skills are highly associated with each other. Effective editing will help make bad writing good and good writing becomes even better. Experienced editing will catch both factual and grammatical errors in copy before it is published, preventing embarrassment, additional costs, and possible legal action. To become an experienced editor, here are some steps to improve your editing skills.

Step 1. Develop a mastery of the English language

It is very important for technical editors to learn and understand the basic rules of the language, such as sentence structure, grammar, and punctuation. Technical editors also need to develop advanced skills for editing the style and context of technical writing work.

Step 2. Know the purpose of the work you are editing

Technical editors need to define the goal of a writing work or the nature of its content in order to determine what kind of audience the writing is trying to focus on. Once the editors understand the purpose of the writing, they will be able to correct problems and help technical writers create sharp-looking documents.

Step 3. Familiarize yourself with the necessary style

Each type of technical writing has different standards and expectations that the piece must conform to. For example, user manuals such as hardware guides, software guides, and product operational manuals are written in an instructional style. These documents teach users how to operate technical products. Informative materials such as scientific testing reports, annual reports, and organizational manuals are produced in a factual style. They provide information of function on products or organizations to the public. Promotional materials such as advertising flyers, product campaign pamphlets, and marketing brochures are designed in a commercial style. They help the sales department of a corporation promote and sell its products and services.

Step 4. Have the confidence to spot and fix errors

An experienced technical editor should have the judgment to search not only for syntax errors, but also for logical mistakes, and to fix them in a correct way. Many companies use technical documents to market their technologies; any illogical error in the content will cause negative effects to these companies. Good editors will help the organizations increase their profits.

Step 5. Give yourself time to do the job right

Rushing to edit a piece of writing work will cause missed errors and make the document look unprofessional. Technical editing experts have provided several guidelines to create a sharp-looking document. They include putting away writing for a day, reading it out loud, using text-to-speak program, building a checklist of writers’ most common mistakes, customizing spell check, and reading back to front, bottom to top, right to left.

Step 6. Read it through once for comprehension

Technical content always contains vital information on technologies and other important technical elements. Technical editors should read documents carefully before start editing to understand all important information. This will lead the editing process in a positive direction and avoid major editing flaws.

Step 7. Re-read each sentence individually, making corrections as needed

Editors should make sure a sentence states its meaning clearly, using the right words, and ensure that the sentence is in the right place in the paragraph. They need to eliminate redundancy by deleting duplicate or unnecessary words, sentences, and paragraphs. Also they should check relevant facts and correct misspellings, syntax errors, incorrect punctuation, and superfluous emphasis.

Step 8. Review the work again by paragraph or section

Technical editors should ensure the clarity of a writing work by reviewing the content thoroughly. A well-edited document will help the audience locate technical information from paragraphs or sections without difficulty.

Step 9. Run an electronic spell check

Technical editors should use the spell check to catch typo errors that they may have missed. An electronic spell check will be able to catch misspelled words, but it cannot catch correctly spelled words used incorrectly. These guidelines provide great value to editors to help improve their editing skills. Technical editors and writers should work together to produce well-polished documents that will assist corporations to market their products and also will help the audience learn about today’s new technologies.

Explain some activities that may be carried out for the future needs of textbooks and electronic tutoring in Pakistan.

Currently education systems in many countries are experiencing some kind of curriculum reform. One of the most important reasons for this is that the information age has brought technology to schools and to the lives of the young and the old in our societies. The most salient outcome of this process is the textbook, the most widely used tool for curriculum interpretation and implementation. Textbooks are one of the major teaching and learning resources used in schools. Development and production of textbooks is a continuous process which needs to be supported by continuous and rigorous research and development. Every country including Pakistan, has some kind of mechanism to evaluate textbooks. Having such a mechanism, however, does not, in and by itself, provides a guarantee of quality. To make the textbook evaluation process effective, it is necessary to refer to and use agreed upon indicators of what constitutes quality textbook. The purpose of the present article is to identify these indicators. In Pakistan, the Curriculum Wing (CW) of Ministry of Education is the apex national institution that formulates and approves curricula for all subjects up to class XII. Textbook evaluation is one of the key responsibilities of the CW. Textbook development and evaluation has always been subject of debate in Pakistan. There are a variety of reasons for this, but non-availability of explicit criteria for textbook evaluation is one of the main reasons and, hence, an important concern. This study, by identifying the key indicators for effective textbook evaluation and thereby providing explicit criteria for textbook evaluation, can be instrumental in overcoming the current difficulty. Textbooks are typically the main source of learning material for students and the source of information on a specific subject or field. Textbooks also typically reflect society’s values and aspirations of a nation. These are the visible, tangible and practical manifestation of the curriculum, designed to teach students what governmental educational authorities believe must be taught. In other words, textbooks “tell children what their elders want them to know” (Kalmus, 2004, p.13). “Textbooks can give teachers a sense of security and confidence as they steer their way through the innovation” (Mustapha, 2008). “Textbooks certainly provide an important tool in transferring knowledge (Pallo, 2006, p.779). This transfer of knowledge is not limited to merely conveying the information about a subject, but also aims at developing an understanding of the subject. One of the classical definition of textbook that was latter adopted by UNESCO is “A textbook is an exposition of generally accepted principles in one subject, intended primarily as a basis for instruction in classroom or pupil – book – teacher situation” (Brammer, 1967 as cited in Laspina, 1998, p-28). Hence a textbook plays multifarious roles in the educational context. Amongst them are the following key roles: a) address students’ needs; b) provide a framework for teaching; c) help new teachers as a resources material; and d) influence teaching learning

processes. According to the Textbook Division ‘design’ is a structured plan which encompasses the layout concept of a book. Design is an important factor which can differentiate one publication from another. It represents a layout which displays the texts, graphics or other materials in the pages of the book. The division ensures the quality design by stating how the presentation format for the whole book must be structured, functional, clear, user-friendly and simple. Every space must be used to the optimum, taking into consideration the space that enables readers to rest their eyes. A good design can guide a reader’s eyes to read in sequence and differentiate the primary from the secondary materials. The design of a textbook takes into consideration the basic principles of creativity or creative arts in an ordinary design, which are balance, proportion, sequence, unity, easy and contrast. In designing textbooks, however, the aspects to focus on are the pedagogical requirements of the subject and its suitability to the target group. This ensures that the selected design is suitable. The design of the textbook must be consistent throughout the book so as to assist users in understanding the contents.

Performance refers to primary operating characteristics e.g. speed, comfort, ease of use etc. for multiple performance features, and the relative importance of each. 2. Features are extras, add-ons, or gimmicks that enable a customer to customize a product somewhat. 3. Reliability reflects the probability of a product malfunctioning or failing within a specified time period. 4. Conformance is the degree to which a product's design and operating characteristics meet to pre-established standards. 5. Durability refers to the length of time, or extent of use, before the product deteriorates and must be replaced; durability is a function of the product's operating environment and reliability. 6. Serviceability is the speed, ease, and convenience of making maintenance work or repairs and the courtesy and competency of service people. 7. Aesthetic refers to the look, sound, smell, feel, or taste of the product based on personal taste; though subjective, some aesthetic judgments tend to be common. 8. Perceived Value is a subjective opinion about the product based on images or attitudes formed by advertising and/or the reputation of the producer. If we restate these eight dimensions in less general terms referring only to textbooks and not to products in general they can be defined as follows. 1. Performance. The Performance of a textbook refers to traits that help students in achieving the learning outcomes laid down in curriculum, and that cater to individual cognitive, social, cultural, religious, ethnic and other needs 2. Features. Features of textbooks refer to traits like promote student thinking and suggests activities for further study through Teachers’ Guide, Teaching

Kit, Ematerial, and Assessment. 3. Reliability. Reliability refers to the likelihood that a textbook will be useful as expected and nothing will be wrong within the time period during which it is intended to be used. Reliability of a textbook means that it provides updated and accurate information-valid for the period for which it is prescribed, and offers clarity in conveying meanings and is understandable for every reader using the text. 4. Conformance. Conformance refers to the extent to which a textbook meets pre-set standards. These are found in public and education policies, curriculum guidelines and objectives/standards, national ideology and culture etc. These pre- set standards are consistent with the scope of the content given in the curriculum guidelines. 5. Durability. As a measure of textbook life or duration, durability has both economic and technical dimensions. Economic dimension refers to physical state of textbook and technical dimension refers to content matter in textbook. In terms of physical state, durability is typically defined as the length of time a textbook can be used by students before it deteriorates beyond usefulness and replacement becomes preferable to continued repair. This depends largely on paper quality, quality of printing and binding and care of use. From content matter perspective, durability refers the validity of the information content before this information becomes invalid or obsolete. 6. Serviceability Textbook serviceability refers to the review of textbook and to the manner of the delivery of its content in the classroom. Review refers to periodic content evaluation in order to keep the book valid without changing its basic structure. Delivery refers to the availability of textbooks’ teachers’ guides to guide classroom instruction. In brief, review and delivery seek to ensure, through periodic examinations and updates of content and teachers’ guides that the textbook is fit for long term use. In turn these require the availability and capacity of professionals and reviewers. 7. Aesthetics How a product looks, feels, sounds, tastes, or smells is often a matter of personal preference. But there are general areas of agreement. For textbooks, the aesthetic dimension refers to the formulation of the title, layout, format, illustrations, and other graphics-acceptability with respect to age / level / relevant to content and context. Good looking title that attract students of the age and grade for which it has been developed. In brief, the esthetics of textbook include: a) title, binding, font and font size, page layout/format and illustrations, and b) other graphics-acceptability with respect to age / level / relevant to content and context. Perceived Quality For textbooks, perceived quality refers to positive perceptions of teachers, parents, and students regarding textbook appearance, content and publication quality.