Q8: Write a short note on The following?
This is one of type of Twisted pair cable. UTP is abbreviation of Unshielded twisted Pair cable. (UTP) consists of a number of twisted pairs with a simple plastic casing. This cable is commonly use for local area networking due to less expensive.
Routed Protocols: A Routed Protocol is a network protocol which can be used to send the user data from one network to another network. Routed Protocol carries user traffic such as e-mails, file transfers, web traffic etc.
Routing Protocols are network protocols used to dynamically advertise and learn the networks connected, and to learn the routes (network paths) which are available. Routing protocols running in different routers exchange updates between each other and most efficient routes to a destination. Routing Protocols normally run only in Routers, Layer 3 Swithes
1. Peer-to-Peer network is a network which is established without dedicating server. Following are the advantages of Peer to Peer network.
Peer Computers have many advantages especially for small business that cannot afford to Invest expensive Server, hardware and. Software.
No Network administrator required.
Ability of users to Control resources sharing.
Server is a system which shares the resources on the network for client system. In this network a main computer steblished as server and other computer which use the resources of server are called client.
Advantages of Server Netwrok:
Storage Central Security
Central file Storage, which allows all users to work from the Same Set of data and provides easy backup. Ability to Share expanses equipment such as laser printers.
Easy manageability of a large number of users.
Central organization, which keep data from getting lost among Computers.
Coaxial cable was invented in 1929 and first used on commercial basics in 1941. Coaxial cable consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation and then outer channel used as ground. The shield minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference. Coaxial cable is used by cable TV companies between the community antenna and user homes and businesses. This cable can carry information for a great distance. Advantages:
1. Coaxial cable is relatively inexpensive.
2. Coaxial cable is simple as compare to other cables.
3. Band with is Up to 56 Kbps
4. Compared to twisted-pair, coax provides greater bandwidth system wide, and it also offers greater bandwidth for each channel.
1. More expensive than twisted pairs and is not supported for some network standards.
2. Along the length of the coaxial cable, part of the transmitted signal will be lost or attenuated.
3. A small percent may escape the cable's shielding and more will be converted to heat.
1. Network interface card:
NIC stands for network interface card. It is also known as network adapter. A network interface card is a device that physically connects each computer to a network.
Modem short for modulator-demodulator. In communication modem converts the digital data in to analog so that it transmits over the phone line because phone line transmits analog data. in the same way on the other hand when data is received modem again convert this analog data in to digital single so that computer store and process on this information.
A Switch is a common connection point for devices in a network. Switch contain more then one ports. The all the computer are connected on that port when we send the data to any computer to other computer then in Switch then its switch from one port to destination port.
hub is also common connection point for devices in a network and contain Different port. In hhb and switch there is main difference is that when data reach to hub its goes to all ports but in Switch its goes to only destination Device.
Network topology means the physical or logical layout of a network in which define how the different nodes are placed and interconnected with each other and also describe how the data is transferred between these nodes.
1)The Bus Topology: In This topology all the computer and devices are connected to a single cable. This is typically use in a small networks and take the advantage of using less cable. Their main disadvantage is that if any segment of the network fails, all transmissions do as well.
2) Ring Topology : In Ring topology all the devices or computer are connected to each other in a circular shape. All the data which will be send move around the ring until it reaches its final destination.
3) Mesh Topology: In a mesh network topology, each of the network node, computer and other devices, are interconnected with one another, allowing for most of the transmission to be distributed , even if one of the connection go down. This type of topology is very expensive as there are many redundant connections, thus it is not mostly used in computer networks. It is commonly used in wireless networks.
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