MEd Elementary Teacher Education (ETE) (1 Year)

Classroom Assessment-1627

 “The Concept of Assessment and its Applications to Teaching and Learning” Purpose and basic terms:


  1. Purpose: To judge some process or product with the aim of making improvements. Here the purpose is to judge teaching and learning so that improvements can be made for future.


  1. Basic terms:
  • Measurement: refers to dimensions/quality/weight. For example, measuring a box, weighing it.
  • Testing: Process of judging something. For example, testing your ability, testing blood sample.
  • Assessment: is a broader term and includes measurement and testing also; it is usually with reference to some goals. For examples, your assessments, or of some organization.
  •  Evaluation: is a complex process and more broader term including measurement and testing and assessment, engaging with some other processes of making comparisons; its results enable you to make decisions for changes. For example, change of course outline or materials.

Topic 2


 What is Classroom Assessment?


 Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba & Banta, 1999)


 Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop an understanding of what students know and understand; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning. (Huba & Freed, 2000)

In short, the main points in these definitions are:

  • Process of gathering information
  • Multiple sources
  • Develop and understand
  • Improvement

Topic 3

Emerging points from these definitions:

  1. Assessment is a systematic process: certain circumstances, goals and planning must be keep in mind while assessment. Nothing can take place haphazardly. See the image below:
  1. Information is gathered from different sources:

There are many sources to get information about the students like homework, exam papers, class test, projects etc.

  1. Judgment:

We gather all the information for judgment about what has yet achieved and what is still missing.


Making such judgments is the essential part of process of improvement.

  1. About a process or product:

Now this judgment is made for the assessment about a process or product. All the classroom activities and learning are a process and the knowledge gained by the students and a competent student is the product.

  1. Improvement:

These judgments are made for improvement in the process and the product. Assessment is just like a bridge that is connecting behind as well as the future of the students.

Topic 4

Classroom Assessment: Classroom Context:

  1. Information is gathered systematically: It is a systematic process, for example; a teacher teaches in a classroom and then at the end gives an assignment to the students as quiz, midterm exam and final term exam. Final term exam is never taken at the start of the academic session. So, a sequence is followed that is systematic.


  1. From different sources to make improvements in teaching and learning: Assessment of students is done through a variety of ways like questioning in classroom, assignments, quizzes, exams etc. The information gathered from all the sources make your assessment.


  1. To make improvements in teaching and learning: The results of assessment always open grounds of improvement.


  1. To make changes in syllabi, curriculum or policies: All the results of assessment can be reviewed critically to make changes in the system for improving the teaching and learning process at policy making level.

Topic 5

Why Assessment is important?

  1. Evaluation: Assessment gives us evaluation. Evaluation values our ability. A student can evaluate herself after exam that she could not perform well this time.
  1. Motivation for students as well as for teachers:
  1. Allocation of resources: books, materials, CDs etc. are all the resources, and through evaluation we come to know that the resources are utilized properly or there is a need for some change.
  1. Modification and Improvement: It is a basic aim of every assessment and evaluation.

Topic 6

Challenges in Assessment:

Assessment is not an easy process. There are certain challenges that must be kept in mind while assessment. These are:

  1. Valid Assessment: you are assessing what is intended to be assessed.
  2.  Fair Assessment: There should be no bias.
  3.  Administrative issues: like conducting exams or tests, proper arrangements in terms of time and infra structure.
  4. Meaningful interpretations of assessments and effective applications for future planning.


Basic assumptions about Classroom Assessment:

There are certain things which are assumed about classroom assessment.

  1. Teacher directed: Teacher has a commanding role.
  2.  Learner centered: It revolves on the learner and learning.
  3.  On going: It is an ongoing process and seems to end, but in fact is going on.
  4.  Mutually beneficial: beneficial for both teacher and the learner.
  5.  Context specific: always according to certain context

Topic 8

The Concept of Assessment and its Applications to Teaching and Learning:

Purpose: To judge some process or product with the aim of making improvements. Here the purpose is to judge teaching and learning so that improvements can be made for future.

Examples of process can be: conducting a test is a process; classroom also represents a process.

Examples of product assessment can be: products in market or a student is also a product after completing a degree.

Topic 9

Classroom Assessment: Measurement

Measurement: refers to dimensions/quantity/weight. Measurement is normally shown by using numbers. For example, measuring a box, or weighing it. Measurement is always with reference to some scale.

Topic 10

Classroom Assessment: Testing

Testing: refers to the process of judging some ability or deciding about some ability. For example, testing your ability for driving or in classroom; testing IQ.

Topic 11

Classroom Assessment: Assessment

Assessment: is a broader term and including measurement and testing also; it is usually with reference to some goals. For example, your assessments; like you have to learn hundred words by this weekend. So, your assessment will be related to those 100 words that how much and how firmly you have learnt them. Assessment is also related to organizations. All organizations assess their employees such as audit teams and inspection teams visits the organization.


Topic 12

Classroom Assessment: Evaluation

Evaluation: is a complex process and broader term including measurement, testing and assessment. All these things give you the value of the product/process that you are going to access. Evaluation also provides us with the ground for improvement.

Topic 13

Classroom Assessment: Modification or Improvements:

The basic purpose of every assessment is to make changes. There is no use of assessments if improvements are not made. The teacher develops a lesson plan to be followed in classroom; the lesson plan is then implemented in classroom. At the end there is evaluation of it. The purpose to evaluate it is modification/improvement.

Topic 14

Classroom Assessment: Types of Assessment:

There are different types of assessment; for example,

  • You have midterm exams
  • You have final term exams
  • House exams and board exams
  • Your classroom as a process


  • Your result as a product

Names of these assessments are:

  • Formative
  • Summative
  • External and internal
  • Product
  • Process

Topic 15

Classroom Assessment: Formative Assessment

Formative is a type of testing in which a range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.

Key points use for formative assessment:

  • Range of formal and informal assessment
  • During the learning process
  • To modify teaching and learning
  • To improve

Topic 16

Classroom Assessment: Summative Assessment

Summative assessment refers to the assessment of participants, and summarizes their development at the particular time. In contrast to formative assessment, the focus is on the outcome of the program.

Key points use for summative assessment:

  • Assessment of participants
  • Development at a particular time
  • The outcome of a program

Topic 17

Classroom Assessment: External and Internal Assessment

Internal assessment is the process by which an organization assesses its policies and systems internally. It is carried out by the departments within the organization and employees themselves are skilled at managing internal assessment.

External assessment on the other hand involves an external organization or a consultancy firm to judge and monitor the organizational procedures and give an unbiased opinion for betterment.

Focus is on internal system vs external agencies. For instance your house exam and board exam.

Topic 18

Classroom Assessment: Process Assessment

Process assessment means the assessment of process taking place including the factors involved in it. ‘During any process’ is the key word. For example, classroom proceedings.

Topic 19

Classroom Assessment: Product Assessment

Product assessment means the assessment of product at the end of some process. Achievement at the end with reference to some goal is important here. For instance, your final grades.

Topic 20

Classroom Assessment: Some links and loops

Assessment is not an isolated concept, it is always linked to some other things as well.

What is a loop? A loop is defined as a process which is connected to its beginning. A system is said to perform closed-loop processing if the system feeds information back into itself.

Assessment is also done in a loop such as, a system that keeps informing the beginning means that some change is to be made there and then the cycle starts. See the image below:

  • Design
  • Develop
  • Implement
  • Assess

Topic 24

Classroom Assessment: Assessment Techniques and their Links with each other

Some techniques of classroom assessment are: probing about the topics, discussions, projects, assignments, paper-pencil test. Techniques of classroom assessment are placed and conducted under the umbrella of curriculum.

Topic 25

Classroom Assessment: Classroom Management

Classroom maintains a link between teaching and learning. Teaching and learning takes place in a certain context. Learner and learning are linked; they are linked with the teacher also. The links maintained in classroom refers back to the concept of loop as well.

Topic 26

Classroom Assessment: Reliability and related concepts

Reliability refers to the extent to which assessment results are consistent. The assessment that maintains the consistency in results is known as reliable.

“Reliability is the extent to which a measurement instrument or procedure yields the same results as on repeated trails (Carmines and Zeller, 1979)”

For example, a calculator cannot be reliable if it gives wrong calculations or results. The weight of an object is not reliable if machine is not working properly. Same is the case of the results obtained from assessments.

What is meant by the term of unreliable results? The unreliable results of assessment mean inconsistency. Keeping these views in mind, we can trust the results if these are consistent. It is the evidence of an accurate system of assessment. Keeping in view the significance of reliability, different methods are used to attain reliability. For example, test-retest procedure, the alternative –test form procedure and the split halves procedure.

Topic 27

Classroom Assessment: Test-retest Procedure

Same test, given two (or more) times. Example: One might develop a test and will be administered twice with the same students. If the subject provides very small answers both times, it means results will be similar. Then one can assume that the assessment results are reliable.

Advantages of using ‘Test-Retest Procedure’:

  • This procedure has strong logical appeal, one is measuring more than once with the identical test.
  • One avoids the problem of developing more than one test.

Disadvantages of using ‘Test-Retest Procedure’:

  • Events taking place
  • Persons might change
  • Students become more practiced second time.

Topic 28

Classroom Assessment: Alternative-test Form Procedure

Create two forms of the same test (vary the items slightly). Reliability is stated as correlation between scores of Test1 and test 2. If students give similar answers, it means the results will be the same and it will have reliability.


  • As tests differ though slightly, students cannot apply their guess work


  • One has to develop two tests.

Topic 29

Split Halves Procedure

  • Same test, administer once, grade each half separately, compare grades from each half.


  • Need to develop just one test.
  • No maturation
  • No cueing


  • What is the criterion of splitting halves?

Topic 30

Internal Consistency Procedure

  • Same test, administered once, score is based upon average similarity of responses to the items. It is a measure of reliability used to evaluate the degree to which different test items that probe the same construct produce similar results.


  • Need to develop just one test.
  • No maturation.
  • No cueing.


  • Scholars do not agree on the formula applied to calculate internal consistency.

Topic 31

Coefficients range

  • The value of reliability coefficients range from 0 to 1.0.


  • A coefficient of 0 means no reliability.


  • 0 means perfect reliability but hard to claim.


  • If it is above .80, it is said to have good reliability; if it is below .50, it would not be considered a very reliable test.

Topic 32

Some other types of Assessment

Authentic Assessment

  • It is a form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills.
  • There are some other names used for authentic assessment: for instance alternative assessment or direct assessment.

Performance Assessment

  • Performance assessments call upon the examinee to demonstrate specific skills and competencies, that is, to apply the skills and knowledge they have mastered.

(Stiggins, 1987: 34)

Topic 33

Authentic versus Traditional Assessment

1-Selecting a Response vs Performing a tsk.

Traditional assessment targets a response like answering a question whereas authentic assessment asks for meaningful performance like group discussion.

2-More towards real life.

Instead of preparing for the examination hall, it is more towards real life.

3-Recalling vs construction of Knowledge

Traditional assessment (i.e., tests and quizzes) determine whether or not students have acquired a body of knowledge. Authentic assessments often ask students to analyze and apply what they have learned.

4-Indirect evidence vs Direct evidence

Traditional assessment gives normally clues about the learning of some content whereas authentic assessment tries to focus on the personal capabilities to solve real life like problems.

Topic 34

Diagnostic Assessment

  • Diagnostic assessment helps to diagnose weak areas of learners. It has normally been studied with reference to language learning.
    • Diagnostic assessment looks for problem areas for a student during the learning process. It has been helpful especially in language and mathematical field.

    Topic 35

    Norm Referenced Assessment

    • A norm referenced assessment makes judgments about people, on the basis of sources and distributions of scores. For instance, the top 10 percent of the class are awarded first class and the next 15 percent are awarded second class.
    • A norm referenced assessment has been the most common type of assessment used in education.
    • Though norm referenced assessment is very common, but does not give accurate and exact assessment. For example, a student who fails in one year may well have passed in others. Similarly getting higher grades does not mean higher capabilities.

    Topic 36

    Criterion Referenced Assessment

    • Criterion referenced assessment makes judgments about performance, rather scores. It assesses the extent to which a student has received the performance outcomes of a subject.
    • For example, oral presentations may be judged on the following criteria: knowledge of subject material, ability of responding to the questions, structure of presentation, use of audio/visual aids, pace and timing and delivery style.

    Topic 37

    Norm vs Criterion Referenced Assessment

    • Norm referenced is more common and has been in practice for years where as criterion referenced is new and less practiced as compared to norm referenced.
    • Norm referenced focuses more on scores where as criterion referenced targets the performance of students. Criterion is closer to real life situation as compared to norm referenced.

    Topic 38

    Validity and Related Concepts

    • Validity means how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
    • A vocabulary test can not be valid if it measures your grammar ability. Similarly, a comprehension test can not be valid if it measures vocabulary.
    • What is meant by the term of ‘invalid test’? it means a test fails to measure what it is supposed to measure.
    • We can trust the results if these have been attained from a valid test. It is the evidence of an accurate system of assessment.
    • There are different types of validity like face validity, content validity, construct validity, criterion validity and predictive validity.

    Topic 39

    Face Validity

    • Does the test appear to test what it is supposed to be tested?
    • A drawing test must be related to figures, so the question paper should appear with figures. A test that asks for filling some blanks must have blanks on paper. A multiple choice question must have options along with it.

    Topic 40

    Content Validity

    • Content validity refers to the contents a test is suppose to measure.
    • For instance, a book has ten chapters; these chapters are the contents of the book.
    • The topics of your course of assessment are the content of this course: { A,B,C,D,E.F.G,H…..}
    • Test: {B,C,F,H}

    Topic 41

    Construct Validity

    • Construct validity refers to the construction of a test.
    • You have the contents; how do you make a test? How do you tackle the questions? The contents of the course should be aptly covered in the question paper.
    • For instance:

    Contents: {A,B.C,D,E,F,G,H}

    Test questions: a1, a2, a3. e1, e2, e3.

    Test questions: b1, d1, f1,h1,a1.

    Topic 42

    Criterion and Predictive Validity

    • How much a test can measure some performance with reference to some defined standards? It is known as criterion related validity.
    • For instance, one is expected to be able to speak fluently after completing a course. So the test is valid if it can measure spoken ability.
    • How much a test can predict future performance with reference to some defined standard? It is known as predictive validity.

    Topic 43

    Link between Reliability and Validity

    Reliability and validity are related concepts. A test can not be reliable if not valid.

    If data are valid, they must be reliable. If people receive very different scores on a test every time they take it, the test is not likely to predict anything. However, if a test is reliable, that

    does not mean that it is valid. For example, we can measure strength of grip very reliably, but that does not make it a valid measure of intelligence or even of mechanical ability. Reliability is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for validity.

    Topic 44

    Free from Bias

    What is Bias?

    • Inclination for or prejudice against one person or group, especially in a way that is considered to be unfair; systematic unfair treatment of a particular group of individuals.
    • There are different types of it:
    • Unfairness
    • Offensiveness etc.

    Topic 45


    • When some one’s right denied due to like or dislike. In assessment, normally it is associated with teachers.
    • It creates a mistrust among the stakeholders of assessment and hence affects the whole process. Unfairness questions the standards of assessment.

    Topic 46


    • Using such language in question or such attitude that may offend some one. For instance the conflict between the white and the black in America during the civil war.
    • Offensiveness not only deforms the image of the teacher, but also proves that assessment system is not reliable.

    Topic 47

    Assessment and physically challenged people

    • Those who have some physical disability, must be facilitated in a balanced way.

    Topic 48

    Equality and Equity

    • Giving equal opportunities to all is an important step to avoid biasness. Equality in time, in opportunities and equal standards for all in grading help to reduce biasness.
    • Giving equal opportunities to all creates a harmony that leads towards equity.

    Topic 49

    Measures to Eliminate Bias

    • Striving for diversity in test-development staffing and training test developers and scorers to be aware of the potential for cultural, linguistic and socioeconomic bias.
      • Having test material reviewed by experts and trained.
      • Screening for and eliminating items, references and terms that are more likely to be offensive to certain groups.
      • Using multiple assessment measures to determine academic achievement and progress.

      Topic 50

      Assessment in classroom

      Some definitions

      “An assessment developed, administered and scored by a teacher to evaluate individual or classroom student performance”.

      “Classroom assessment is an approach designed to help teachers find out what students are learning in the classroom and how well they are learning it”.

      Topic 51

      Types of assessment

      There are different types of assessment like formative, summative, internal, external etc.

      Formative assessment is ongoing assessment.

      Summative assessment is associated with summing up. Our annual examinations are the typical example of summative assessment.

      Process assessment means when you look at the whole process.

      Product assessment

      Diagnostic assessment


Topic 52

When you give some performance

  • In criterion we assess the performance. For example our communication skills which we can not assess on paper pencil test.
  • Debates and speeches, experiments projects and demonstrations are the example of performance based assessment.

Topic 53

Observation and perception

  • Classroom interaction, student participation and involvement are the examples of this type of assessment.

Classroom Observation


Topic 54

Individual communication

  • Presentation, small group discussion and interviews are the examples of this assessment.

Topic 55

Paper pencil test

  • Test and examinations, written reports are the examples of paper pencil tests.

Topic 56

Washback effect and feedback

What is washback effect?

  • Washback effects refers to the impact or influence of assessment practices (tests, exams or any other kind of assessment) in all of the individuals involved in the teaching-learning process.
  • Tests whose results are observed by students, teachers, administrators, parents or the general public, as being used to make important decisions that immediately and directly affect them. (Madaus, 1988)

Topic 57

What is feedback?

Helpful information or criticism that is given to someone to say what can be done to improve a performance, product, etc. The transmission of evaluative or corrective information about an action, event, or process to the original or controlling source with the aim of improving the process.

Topic 58

Washback effect and feedback:

Effective Feedback:

Effective feedback helps students to develop their understanding and improve their performance in relation to the standards of the learning. Effective feedback is giving specific information that improves the performance of individuals and then of the system overall.

Topic 59

Characteristics of effective feedback:

  • It is specific and performance based.
  • It is descriptive not labelling.
  • It focuses on the behavior, not the learner.
  • It is based on observations, repeated if possible.
  • It balances negative and positive comments.
  • It is well-timed.
  • It is anchored to common goals (For example, the learner’s vocabulary)

Topic 60

Some more characteristics of effective feedback:

  • It is based on trust, honesty, and concern.
  • It is private, particularly if it is negative.
  • It is part of your regular teaching process, not an exception to the norm.
  • It provides for follow up.
  • It provides for two-way communication, soliciting, and considering the receiver’s input.

Topic 61

Guidelines for giving constructive feedback:

  • Give comments based upon observable behavior and not assumed motives or intends.
  • Give positive comments first in order to give the student confidence and gain his/her attention.
  • Emphasize the sharing of information.
  • There should be opportunities for both parties to contribute.
  • Don’t overload the students.
  • Give realistic feedback.

Topic 62

Classroom Assessment: Types of Feedback

Effective feedback: Goal is to get student to internalize the effective feedback. Feedback that is intended to be used by the learner independently.

Topic 63

Types of Feedback: Descriptive feedback

Goal is to improve student achievement by telling the learner how to move forward in the learning process. Feedback that is intended to tell the learner what needs to be improved. “Descriptive feedback is the practice of giving detailed information that provides specific direction for improvement and gives students opportunity for input.”

Topic 64

Types of Feedback: Evaluative feedback

Goal is to measure student achievement with a score or a grade. Feedback that is intended to summarize student achievement. It does not give guidance on how to improve the learner’s reasoning.

Topic 65

Types of Feedback: Motivational feedback

Goal is to make the learner feel good. Feedback that is intended to encourage and support the learner. It does not give guidance on how to improve the learner’s reasoning.

Topic 66

Types of Feedback: Oral and written feedback

Oral feedback is given orally in classroom when you get your assignments/exam papers back after checking. Teacher’s suggestions to improve your reading and writing skills discussed in classroom are all oral feedback. The guidance provided by the teacher face to face in classroom is the oral feedback.

On the other hand, written feedback is written on your assignments and exam papers. The written comments on your assignments etc. It can also be descriptive and effective feedback. Such instructions are very clear and directed.

Topic 67

Types of Feedback: Negative and Positive feedback

  • Negative feedback fails to guide the student about the improvements to be made.
  • Positive feedback guides the student clearly about the improvements to be made, hence there is no confusion.

Topic 68

Classroom Assessment: Feedback and Motivation

Motivation refers to the “reason underlying behavior” or “the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something.” e.g. creating an engaging learning environment.

Topic 69

Types of Motivation:

  1. Intrinsic motivation
    1. Extrinsic Motivation

    Intrinsic Motivation: Internal desires to perform particular task, people do something for attaining some purpose as an internal desire.

    Extrinsic motivation: refers to external factors working to get some work done.

    Topic 70

    Motivation in Classroom:

    When students feel a desire to work hard to achieve learning objectives. Intrinsic motivation takes them to the pleasure and satisfaction in attaining those goals. Extrinsic motivation is an external force which takes them to the achievement of learning goals. Extrinsic motivation can work as a reward or as a punishment.

    Topic 71

    Feedback affecting motivation:

    Feedback is an important source of motivation. It gives an insight to the student that I must work hard. So it can be defined as a force taking you towards goals.

    Topic 72

    Feedback as Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Feedback serves as a source of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation when students feel an inner desire to work hard, it is intrinsic motivation. When student take feedback as an external source that compels them to work hard, it is extrinsic motivation. Feedback helps both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation strategies to motivate the students towards getting good grades.

    Topic 73

    Negative and Positive feedback and Motivation:

    Negative feedback fails to guide the students about the improvements to be made. No motivation can be expected here. Whereas positive feedback guides the student clearly about the

    improvements to be made, hence there is no confusion, so positive feedback is always effective. Positive feedback always motivates the students about the improvements to be made. It can create intrinsic motivation which is actually desired in teaching and learning process.

    Topic 74

    Classroom Activities and Feedback:

    “Whatever is carried out as teaching and learning procedure.”

    Classroom activities

    1. Reading comprehension task.
    1. Matching new vocabulary to definitions.
    1. Role play that is freer oral practice of a grammar point.
    1. Completing a text that has missing words.
    1. Listening comprehension task.
    1. Problem-solving information gap activity.
    1. Discussion that is a lead-in to a reading text.
    1. Written grammar task where students choose the correct tense


    • Nominate students randomly and put all suggested answers on the white board.
    • Praise students’ contributions and ideas.
    • Encourage other students to ask questions about or comment on what each group says.
    • Confirm which answers are correct.
    • Ask students to check their answers in pairs.
    • Ask some follow up questions and make comments on what students have said yourself.
    • Get pairs to look at the unresolved answers quickly for a second time.
    • If there is disagreement over the answers, accept both versions and write them on the white board.
    • If you feel it is appropriate and useful, highlight a few errors you overheard in the discussion.
    • Ask each group to decide what they will say in reporting their discussion.
    • Elicit the outcome of the second pair discussion.
    • Ask each group to tell the class what they have been talking about.

Topic 75

Classroom Activities and Feedback: Evidence of feedback

Feedback evidence can be gathered from the following activities:

  • Conversation with pupils/parents/teachers
  • Written evidence
  • Oral questions
  • Projects
  • Cooperation in activities
  • Cognitive abilities
  • Discussion
  • Progress in work
  • Cooperation in activities
  • Timeframe

Topic 76

How to use evidence for feedback:

Feedback gives information For practical activities:

  • Can pupil make a start?
  • Can pupil apply their knowledge to task?
  • Can pupil choose appropriate materials?
  • Can pupil report findings?

For written work:

  • on knowledge and attitudes – what they know, think, feel.
  • Also gives information on use of language, e.g. vocabulary, sentence structure, organization of ideas etc.

Topic 77

Keeping record of feedback:

Record of feedback can be kept (How):

  • In planners
  • Worksheets
  • Checklists
  • Reports
  • Students’ work


Topic 78

Some images of Feedback

What should be written in feedback?

  • Only what is useful and relevant for planning the next steps in learning and for reporting progress, brief notes, strength and weakness that is to be improved.


  • It should be well planned and pre-decided by the teacher

Topic 79

How can feedback be improved?

  • Interacting with students
  • Refining traditional feedback
  • Feedback-rich assignments
  • Bridging the gaps
  • New ways of giving feedback
  • Reshaping curricula and assignments
  • Briefing and training of students
  • Improving students in feedback

Topic 80

Classroom Assessment: Tools of Assessment

An assessment tool is a method of collecting information about a learner’s performance and understanding about a certain topic. There are different types of these tools like observation, questionnaires, interviews, tests, projects etc.

Topic 81

Tools of Assessment: Observation

Classroom observation is a process by which a teacher observes one or more class sessions, records the practices and student actions.

Topic 82

Tools of Assessment: Interview

A formal face to face meeting normally designed with the purpose of assessment.

Purpose of Assessment through Interview:

  • To investigate how well students understand and can apply a concept
  • To identify gaps in understanding that may be common among students
  • To document the general and content-specific procedures that students employ in application tasks and the sequences and manner in which processes are employed
  • To document how student understanding and problem-solving skills change over time or with instruction
  • To obtain verbal feedback from students about course structure, teaching techniques, and other aspects of the course or program of instruction

Topic 83

Tools of Assessment


  • An individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim and with the purpose of assessment.

    Topic 84

    Diaries and Portfolios

    • A daily record, usually private, especially of the writer’s own experience, observations, feelings, attitudes etc. here with the purpose of assessment.
    • Portfolio assessment is an assessment form that learners do together with their teachers and is an alternative to the classic classroom test. The portfolio contains samples of the learner’s work and shows growth over time.

    Topic 85


    A series of questions, problems or physical responses designed to determine knowledge, intelligence or ability.

    Topic 86


    Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the recording of data via the use of instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity.

    Topic 87

    Overt and Covert observation

    • Observation can be overt when everyone knows that they are being observed.
    • Observation can be covert when nobody knows that they are being observed.
    • The benefit of covert observation is that people behave naturally if they do not know they are being observed.
    • However overt observations are preferred due to ethical problems.

    Topic 88

    Participation of the Observer

    Participating role: when the observer takes part in activity and observes it as well.

    Non-participating role: when the observer does not take part in activity and only observe it.

    Topic 89

    Conducting Observation

    • Observations of others offer many possibilities for learning. Through observations, it is possible to discover causes of behavior, to increase acceptance of individual variations in growth and development, and interact with others on a more meaningful level.
    • There are several observation techniques, such as a running record, factual record time sampling, checklists, hypothetical statement supported by facts, and others

    Topic 90

    Merits of Observation

    • Direct
    • Independent
    • Natural

    Topic 91

    Demerits of Observation


    One of the main disadvantages of observation is that it can be very time consuming and resource intensive.

    Observer Bias

    A fundamental potential weakness of all observation is that it is susceptible to observer bias – subjective bias on the part of the observer – thus undermining the reliability and hence

    the validity of the data gathered. This can be because the observer records not what actually happened, but what they either wanted to see, expected to see, or merely thought they saw.

    Topic 92


    What is a Questionnaire?

    A set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the purpose of a survey or statistical study.

    It serves four basic purposes:

    1. Collect the appropriate data.
    1. Make data comparable to analysis
    1. Minimize bias in formulating and asking the question
    1. Make questions engaging

    Topic 93

    Types of Questionnaire

  • Open ended: an opportunity to express the opinions in a free-flowing manner.
  • Closed format: respondents are restricted to choose among any of the given multiple choice answers.
  • Yes/No format: respondents are to choose positive or negative answers.

Topic 94

 Some More Types of Questionnaires


  •  Likert questions: how strongly respondents agree to a particular statement.
  •  Bi polar questions: two extreme answers written at the opposite ends of a scale.
  •  Leading questions: that lead to a particular type of answer.


Topic 95

 Interpreting Questionnaire

 Calculation like percentages and make inferences.

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 Merits of Questionnaire

  1.  Practical
  2.  Large amount of information
  3.  Easy to manage
  4.  Easy to analyze
  5.  More reliable
  6.  More valid
  7.  Comparable


Topic 97

 Demerits of Questionnaire

  1.  Inadequate for certain information like thinking process, behavior.
  2.  Questions are the reflection of the person who asks them.
  3.   No way to tell how true the information is.
  4.  No way to tell how thoughtful the respondent is. Respondents may understand differently.


Topic 98


 A formal face to face meeting normally designed with the purpose of assessment.

 It serves the purpose to get some specific information and also some assessment about the interviewee.

 Topic 99

 Structured and Semi Structured Interviews

  •  A structured interview, or a standardized interview is a method used in the survey research. The aim of this approach is to confirm that each interview is offered with exactly the same questions in the same order.
  •  The structured ones emphasis the Reliability- how accurately different respondents answers can be compared.
  • A semi structured is open, allowing new ideas to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says.
  • In depth interviews emphasis validity-How close answers get to the respondent’s’ real views.

Topic 100

 Transcribing an Interview

  •  Interview transcription is a word-to-word written documentation of a taped or live interview.
  • Words like “OK” and “Good bye” have also been picked through apparently these do not carry any information.

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Classroom Assessment-1627