Notes of Botany (B.S)

Family : Brassicaseae

Brassicaceae is also called as cruciferae i.e Mustard family.

Diagnostic Characteristics

1) Habit: - Annual , biennial or perrenial .
Annual -> One year life
Biennial ->Two year life,developing leaves in first year ,fruit and flower In second year.
Perrenial -> 3 or more year life
2) Root :- Tap root (Tuberous or fibrous) .
3) Stem:- Herbaceous , Cylindrical , aerial
Herbaceous -> Herb like / Non woody stem
Cylindrical -> Clunder – like , elongated or round .
Aerial -> Occuring above ground .
4) Leaf :- Petiolate , Alternate , simple , exstipulate , reticulated venation.


Petiolated  :            Having  leaf  stalk  (petiol)


Alternate  :               Borne  singly  at  each  nade .

Leaf  type

Simple           :   Leaf  blade  is not divided .and leaves are coverd

By  simple  or branch hairs .


Exstipulate :-             Without  stipule

Venation :-

Reticalated  venation :-veins from midrb forming network .

5). Inflorescence:-        Simple recermose it become corybbose reacome.

 Simple Recme:-            Main axis is elongated and bears lateral branches.

Corymbose Receme:-  Main axis is short and pedicle of older flower are longer while younger flower have short pedide.

 6). Flower:- Pedicilate, ebractate, Acrinomorphie, regular, complete, hermaphordite, hypogynous.

Pedicilate:-  Having pedicle. (Flower Stalk)

Ebrateate:- Bract is absent (Bract is small leaf like structure on axit of which flower arise).

Actinomorphic:- Folwer is cut into equal half by more than one plane.

Regular Symmetry of flower is actinmorphic hence regular.

Complete:- Calyx and corolla are present.

 Hearmaphordite:- Thalamus is conven, ovary is superior.

Calyx:- Four sepals, green, free and dimerous.

Dimerous:- Place in 2 whorls.


Corolla:- Four petals, free, present in cruciform form.

Cruciform:- Petlas are present in cross pattern


Androecium:- 6 stamens are present

That are tetradynamous in position free, basfixed, nectraies.


Necterias     --->            Having nectors .

Tetrodynamous      --->            4  stamens  are larg and 

     2     =   are  short .

 A2 +4 .

 Gynoecium :- Bicarpellany , syncarpous , placeutation is parietal.

Bicarpellary                  Two carpell are present

Sycarpous                     Carpels  are  fused .

G (2)

7)  Fruit:- Siliqua  type of fruit .

         Siliqua                   Fruit  that arises from bicarpellary

         Syncarpous ovary is called siliqua .

8)  Speed :-  Non – endospermic              No nutritive membrance

                       Or layer surround seed .

9)  Floral  Formula  :-

  ϴ,  +   , K2+2 , C4  , A2+4  , G(2)

10)  Floral Diagram :-


11)  Distuibution :-

                        Important  family , present all over the world .

            Indudes         200     genera and 2000 species 

12)  Important Species :-


            Brassica  compestris          --->      Mustard

            Brassica oleracea à           --->    Cabbage


3)        Raphanus sativus  --->            Radish

4)        Ibreeis amara      --->     Candytuft

5)        Brassica nigra   --->            black mustard

6)        Brassica alba    --->          white mustard

7)        Brassica napus   --->     turnip

 13)      Economie Imprtance :-

 (a)       Ornamental plant

   some species of this family are cullirated in garden to enhance the  beauty of nature

                        e.g   Iberis amara      --->               candytuft

                        Cherianthus cheiri   --->          wall flower .

(b)       Meticinal  plant

            Some species are important for their medicinal use-

            e.g  Lipidium sativum    --->        water cress

            used for treatment of airborn disorders e.g asthama .

(c)       Vegetables

                        Root , leaves  and  fruit  of many plants are used as vegetable –

            E.g Radish  , Turnip  ,  cauliflower . etc

            These are  nutrient rich vegetables .


(a)       Condiments .

                        White and black mustard are used in condiments to add taste

                        Flower of food .

(e)       Fodder :-

                        Leaves of Brassica species are used as fodder for animals .

                        Oil cake obtained from crushing seeds is given as fodder to cattle .

 (f)        Weeds :-

                        Capsela bursa pastories   (        )  act as weeds .        


 Diagnostic Characteristics :-


1)      Habit :-          Perrenial  trees  ,  some  are shrubs .

            Shrub:-          woods plant with several stems and shorter than tree .


2)        Root:-

                        Fibrous   tap root is present in plants  .

3)        Stem:-

                        Woody  , Spiny  , cylindrical .


            Woody                    not herbaecous

            Spiny                       Having spines  on  stem

            Cylindrical                 cylinder like


4)        leaves :-

                        Petialate , atternate  or opposite , simple or compound ,

                        Exstiplate  , reticulate venation .


5)        Inflorescence :-

                        Terminal  or  axibary  cyme or paicle

            Terminal :-   when florescnce  forms  at  apen of same branch .

            Axillary :-     Inflorescnce  form  on  branch .



6)        Flower :-       Pedicillate ,  bracteate  or ebracteate , actinomorphic  ,

                        Regular  , complete  , hermaphordite  and hypogynous .


7)        Floral  parts:-


4  -  5   ,   free  ,   or  united  , imbrcate  , givean .


          4  -  5  ,  free   ,  imbricate .


            Numerous   , free   or    polyandrous   ,  another  basifixed .

  Polyanidrous :-       free  from  each  other  ,  may  be di  , tetra  or  penla .

 Carpel :-

            4  - 5  or sometime  more  , syncaropous  , compound

            Avary  , axil  placontation .

             Axil  placeutation:-           In which  margins  of  carpd  are  fussed  and  grow

            Inwords  centre  free  ,  margins  fused

 8)        Fruit:-                        Berry   or    drupes .

             Berry :-   fleshy fruit developed  with  hard  many  seed in mesocarp .

             Drupes:-       fleshy  fruit  with   hard   endocarp  .

 9)        Saeed :-        Non  -  endospermic  seed .

 10)      Floral Formula :-

                        ϴ  ,  +  ,  K  (5)  ,  C5  ,   Ax   ,    G  (x)

11)      Floral  Diagram :-

12)      Distrbution:-

                        Family  has  worldwide  distribution with  120   genera  and  900  specius

                        Mostly   found  in  tropical   and   temperate  region .


13)      Important  Species:-

                        Citrus  acida --->                        Lime

                        Citrus   medica  --->                  Lemon

                        Citrus   limeta      --->                sweet   lime

                        Citrus   aurentium  --->            orange

                        Murraya   konini    --->             (Neem   pat)

14)      Economic  Importance :-

 1)        Fruits :-         Family   is  important  for  citrus  fruits  like arrange  ,  line                          And lemon family   has  third  rant   in food  production .

2)        Medicinal  plant :-

 Most  plants  of  this  family  has   medicinal  importance because they  ar  rich in  vitamin  and minerals .

            Vitamin  C   is   extracted  from  these  fruits 

            Oil  of  lemon   is   used   for  mosquito   repellent

            Leaves    of   Murayama koenigii   are  used  in  flaworing .

 3)        Ornamental  Plant:-

            Plants  of  Murraya  and  lime  are  used  as  ornamental  plants  And cultivated  in  graden  to enhance  beauty .

            Citrus  Lamon   --->         used  to  make  hadge  in lawns  .

 4)        Use in  Perfumes :-

             This  family  has  commercial  importance  too because  used  for  perfume

            Production  white fragnantt  flowers  are  used .    


Symbiotic relationship between algae and fungi. Lichens are dual organisms which contain permanent association of a fungus and algae:-

Fungi                usually Ascomycota                            

Algae usually cyanobacteria

The properties of lichen are sometimes plant like but lichens are not plants.

Algal component is known as “phycobinot that is autotphic in nature (made of nutrition)

Fungal component is known as “mycobiont” that is “heterotrophic” in nature

(Algae prepare food for fungi and fungi provideshetter and absorb mineral and water foralgae)

Food that is produce by algae is diffuse out probably and absorved by fungal partner


  • Lichen are group of plant like composite thalloid nature formed by association b/w algae and fungi
  • The algal partner produce carbohydrate that is wilized by both partner and the fungal partner serves to absorption and relation of water and mineral
  • Based on morphological structure of thalli, lichens are crustose ,foliose ,fructose
  • Lichen reproduced by vegetative,asenual and sexual reproduction

A). Vegetative                  by fragmentation

b). Asexual                       by formation of sodium

  1. C) Sexual only fungus is involved by producing aeciospore.

                                            Meale spores spermogonim

                                            Female spores’ carpogonium


Lichens do not have woxy cuticle like plants have on their leaves .nor thy have rascular tissue to move nutrients and water around their thalli

Everything is absorbed in lichens get their water and ninerals from surrounding environment

 Structural component:-


  • Cortex:-

Cortex is outer layer of lichen thallus their calls are thicker and colossallypacked. This cell layer provider protection as well as provider colour in some species

  • Alagal Layer:-

Algal cells are actually colourd cells precents in the thallus

It green algae is presout lichen is bright green is colour

Itcyanobacteria are presut found under the upper cortex or an top of it, appears as dark green .brown or black in colour

  • Medulla :-

Majority of lichen thallus is comprised of fungus filaments called medulla there cells are threadlike


Lichens attached to their sub strict by mean of

  1. A) Rhizines:-

Fungalfilaments that externd from medulla and attached lichen to it subtracted

Rhizines only holds the lichen down to whatever it is sitting on

  1. b) Holdfast :- is extension of lichens thallus some lichens have hold fast that attach lichens to its substrate generally to a rock .


Lichen often grown in most inhospitable and uninhabited place like barren rocks, cool volcanic lava roofs, walls tree bark etc.

Lichens only grow in area where pollution Is less because they cannot tolerate the pollution


On basis of structure they may be:-


(Crustose) graphics

Crustose is crust like closely attached to substratum and attached to it at several places.

Example graphic


Thy body lichen is flat, broad,and lobed or leaf like, attach to the substratum eg permilia and Cora (dictyounema)


The lichen is branched like bush and attached to substratumby mean of disk

Eg   cladoni

Bulk of lichen body is formea by fungal partner   mycobiont and algal partner is 5% of lichen body

Economic importance sources of food:-

Certain lichen species are valuable sources of food most importance of there are fructicose lichen clanodia some lichens are sources of foods. Most important of these are some lichens are source of fodder for cattle.

Industria use:-

Some lichens are also used as industrialparticles. Lichens used to prepare dyes fungal component produce coloured pigment used for dyes.

Medicinal use:-

Few species of lichen are used in preparation of medicine for jaundice, fever epilepsy and skin disease.

Perfume Formation:-

Sweet- scented thalli of some lichens are used in manufacture of perfumes. Lichen oak Mass is used as fixatwe for perfume.

Indicator of Pollution:-

Lichens serve as indicator of air polluter because they only grow in area where less or no pollution present.



Diagnostic Characteristics:-

  • Habits:-

        The plants of this family are annual or perennial herbs.

Annual: - plant which germinates from seed, produce flower, sets seed (fruit) and dies in same year.

Perennial: -    Plant that live for 3 or more year.

  • Roots:-

Tuberous roots are present in these plants.

Tuberous:- root that produce tubers (for storing food) or resemble a tuber.

  • Stem:-

Herbaceous stem that development rhizome is present.

Herbaceous stem: - not woody/with character of herb.

  • Leaves:- (structure)

Leaf is petiolate,

Petiolate: - Having petiole (leaf stalk that raises lamina towards sunlight).


Arrangement of leaf on is alternate rearly opposite.

            Alternet:- borne singly at each node.

            Opposite:- borne across one another.

                                    (Leaf Type)

            Leaf is simple or compound.

            Simple:- Having no leaflets/ leaf blade is undivided.

            Compound:- Having 2- more leaf lets.


Venation in leaf is reticulated.

Reticulate venation:- venation in which smaller veins arises from midrib and forms network.

  • Inflorescence:-Arrangement of flower on flowering axis is cymose and sometimes receme.

Cymose:-cyme- like, inflorescence in which main axis ends in flower and one or more lateral branches develops.

Receme:-Infloresconse in which main axis is elongated and laterialpeddicillate (cyme- like) flower present on it is receme.

  • Flower:- (Structure)

Flower is pedicillate.

Pedicillate:-pedical (flower stalk) is present.


Flower is actinomorphic, regular.

Actinomorphic:- when flower is cut into two equal half by more thenane plane- symbol(Ɵ)

Regular:- If symmetry is actinomorphic.


  • Complete, Hermaphordits, hypognous.

Complete:- flower is complete if calyx and corolla both are present.

  • Hermaphordite:- If both stamen and carpel are present symbol.
  • Hypogynous:- If that anws is convex, gynoecium (carepel) borne in centre having superior position and all other floral parts born at side of the carpel.

(No. of Floral Parts)

            Calyx:-     5 sepals, free, pataloid. Imbricate.

            Sepals:-   Outermost whorl of flower.

            Free:-      They are not attached with petals.

            Petaloid:- Sepals are coloured  like  petals e.g (larkspur)

Corolla:- 3-5 or more petals, free, imbricate.

            Petals:- Coloured past/just inside sepals.

            Free:-Not attached with any floral part.

            Imbricate:- Margin of sepal and petal overlap each other.

            Stamen:-Numeraous stamens, spirally arranged and basifixed.

Basifixed:- Stamen attached at base of anther.

Carpal:-Poly carpilary, apocarpous, and is marginal or basal.

Poly carpilary:- Having many carpals.

Apocarpous:- carpels are free from each other.

Marginal Placautation:- ovules are attached on inner wall of ovary.

Basel placeutation:- ovules are attached at base of ovary.

  • Fruits:- An Etaerio, of achenes, sometimes, berry or capsule.

Etaerio of achene:-fruit in which pericarp is free from seed coat and membranous.

Capsule: - Dry dehiscent fruit formad  from many carpels.

Berry: - fleshy fruit developing from single pistil with many seeds, e.g to matlo.


            Seed is endospermic

{seed is covered by nutritive tissues in endoryo}

Floral formula & diagram


It has about 40 genera and 1200 species mostly distribution in old region

Vastn variety found in India, Pakistan and Himalaya

Important species:-

(1).Ranunculivsmuricatus buttercup.

(2).Delphinium ajacis larkspur.

(3). Ranunculus sceleratus crowfoot.

(4). Ranunculus aquatitis water buttercup.

(5). Aconitum napellus poisonous herp.

(6). Nigella sativa kalonji.

Economic Importance:-

            Ornamental plant:-

Most plant are cultivatedfor their beauty full flower e.g. butter cup, Larkspur

Medicainalplant :-some members are used as medicine ,e.gaconitina to add  flavous to the food e.g seeds of nigella –

It is also used as drug .

Weeds:- same members are weed e.g ranunculus muricatus.

Necteries :- some members of their family are necteries ,that have great  importance for honey bee .

Poison:- some members of this family produce acrid juice that is highly poisonous

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