**CPrepared by : Muhammad Qadir Rafique(MA,MSC)**

**Chapter 02**

**VECTORS AND EQUILIBRIUM**

- Explain the addition of vectors by rectangular component method.
- Define vector product of vectors. Give at least two examples for each. Write down its four characteristics.
- Define scalar product of vectors. Give at least two examples for each. Write down its four characteristics.

**Chapter 03**

**MOTION AND FORCE**

- Discuss the elastic collision of two smooth balls in one dimension and find their velocities after the collision.
- Define linear momentum. Give its S.I. unit. State and prove the law of conservation of linear momentum.

**Chapter 04**

**WORK AND ENERGY**

- Define gravitational field. Prove that work done in the earth’s gravitational field is independent of path followed.
- Discuss interconversion of potential and kinetic energies I the presence of friction.
- Define gravitational field. Show that the work done in gravitational field is
- independent of the path followed. Hence show that the work done in closed path is zero.

**Chapter 05**

**CIRCULAR MOTION**

- What are geostationary satellites? Calculate the radius of geo-stationary orbit.
- How artificial gravity is provided in space satellites. Derive necessary relation for artificial gravity.
- Define centripetal force and derive an expression for it.

**Chapter 06**

**FLUID DYNAMICS**

- Setat the equation of continuity and derive its relation.
- State and prove Bernoulli’s equation.

Chapter 07

OSCILLATIONS

- Define simple harmonic motion. Derive the relation for instantaneous velocity for the projection of particle ‘p’ moving in a circle.
- Define simple harmonic motion. Show that energy is conserved for a body executing simple harmonic motion.
- Derive relation for K.E, P.E, and T.E of a mass ‘m’ attached to a spring of constant k. show that T.E is constant.
- What is Doppler’s effect? Find the apparent change in frequency when source is at rest and observer is moving.
- What are defects in Newton’s formula for speed of sound? How this formula was connected by Laplace?

**Chapter 09**

**PHYSICAL OPTICS**

- Describe young double slit experiment. Derive the expression for fringe spacing.
- Define diffraction of light. Explain diffraction of X-rays by crystal and derive Bragg’s Equation.
- Explain the working of Michelson’s interferometer.

**Chapter 10**

**OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS**

- Write down the construction and working of compound microscope. Derive a relation for its angular magnification.
- What is simple microscope? Derive relation for its angular magnification.

**Chapter 11**

**HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS**

- Prove that the absolute temperature of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the average translational kinetic energy of gas molecules.
- Show that pressure exerted by the gas is directly proportional to the average translational kinetic energy of gas molecules.
- Explain the working of a petrol engine and compare its efficiency with diesel engine.
- What is Carnot engine? Calculate its efficiency.
- Define Cp and Cv. Show that Cp – Cv = R

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Model Paper of Physics (Important Question)

Model Paper of Physics (Important Question)